文章摘要
林庆莹,白凯强,孙彬,何培民.长江口封闭养殖海域水质污染及潜在风险[J].上海海洋大学学报,2019,28(6):902-910
长江口封闭养殖海域水质污染及潜在风险
Water pollution and potential risk in closed aquaculture area of Yangtze River Estuary
投稿时间:2018-04-30  修订日期:2019-03-01
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20180402303
中文关键词: 浮游植物  养殖  水质污染  潜在风险
英文关键词: phytoplankton  cultivation  water pollution  potential risks
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAC07B03);上海市海洋局科研项目(沪海科2015-02)
作者单位E-mail
林庆莹 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
白凯强 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
孙彬 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
何培民 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306 pmhe@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      针对上海奉贤碧海金沙封闭养殖海域的水质状况及浮游植物动态变化进行监测分析,并据此分析养殖期间的水质污染状况和潜在风险。调查时间为2016年4月、7月、10月及2017年1月。水质调查表明:4月、7月、10月,调查海域DIP、DIN和COD浓度保持较高水平,其中,DIP、DIN浓度在4月最高,而COD浓度最高值出现在7月。而养殖结束后,即10月到次年1月,水质状况明显改善。浮游植物共发现7门42种,其中秋季、夏季居多。浮游植物四季演替明显,春季优势度最高为隐藻门的尖尾蓝隐藻(Chroomonas acuta),夏季则为绿藻门的小球藻(Chlorella),秋季蓝藻门的卷曲鱼腥藻(Anabaena circinalis)为主要优势种,冬季则为蓝藻门的颤藻(Oscillatoria),其中小球藻四季均为优势种。浮游植物丰度较高集中在秋季、夏季。Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')和均匀度指数(J)分别在0.709~2.088和0.440 4~0.870 7。分析表明:该海域浮游植物群落结构稳定性较差且水质污染较重,影响浮游植物丰度的环境因子为营养盐浓度和温度,卷曲鱼腥藻和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)分别在夏季和夏、秋季优势度较高,具有潜在造成赤潮的风险,需控制养殖容量,结合生态修复,优化养殖环境。
英文摘要:
      This study was conducted to monitor and analyze the water quality and the dynamic changes of phytoplankton in the closed aquaculture area of Bihai Jinsha in Fengxian of Shanghai were monitored and analyzed and the pollution and potential risks during the aquaculture process was analyzed. The investigations took place in April, July, October 2016 and January 2017. Water quality surveys showed that DIP, DIN and COD concentration remained relatively high in April, July and October. Among them, DIP and DIN concentrations were highest in April, while the highest values of COD concentrations occurred in July. From October to January, the water quality improved significantly at the end of the cultivation. Phytoplankton was found to have a total of 42 species of 7 Phyla, of which most were in autumn and summer and it showed obvious four-season succession. The species with the highest dominance in the four seasons were Chroomonas acuta, Chlorella, Anabaena circin alis and Oscillatoria, and it is worth noting that Chlorella is a dominant species in all seasons. The high abundance of phytoplankton is focused on the summer and autumn. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') and evenness index (J) were from 0.709 to 2.088 and from 0.440 4 to 0.870 7 respectively. The analysis showed that the stability of the community structure of phytoplankton was poor and the water pollution was heavy. The environmental factors affecting the abundance of phytoplankton were nutrition concentration and temperature, and the dominance of Anabaena circinalis and Skeletonema costatum were higher in autumn and both in summer and autumn, respectively, which may cause the risk of red tide. It is necessary to control the aquaculture capacity, improve water quality, and optimize breeding environment.
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