文章摘要
吴凯,马旭洲,王友成,王武,郎月林.3种水草腐解对水质的影响[J].上海海洋大学学报,2016,25(5):726-734
3种水草腐解对水质的影响
Effect of three water plants decomposition on water quality
投稿时间:2015-12-29  修订日期:2016-03-27
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20151201627
中文关键词: 河蟹  生态养殖  池塘  水草  腐解  水质
英文关键词: crab  eco-culture  pond  water plants  decomposition  water quality
基金项目:上海市中华绒螯蟹产业技术体系(D8003-10-0208);国家星火计划项目(2011GA680001);欧盟FP7亚欧水产平台(245020);水产动物遗传育种中心上海市协同创新中心项目(ZF1206)
作者单位E-mail
吴凯 上海海洋大学 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 上海 201306
上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
水产动物遗传育种上海市协同创新中心, 上海 201306 
 
马旭洲 上海海洋大学 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 上海 201306
上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
水产动物遗传育种上海市协同创新中心, 上海 201306 
xzma@shou.edu.cn 
王友成 上海鱼跃水产专业合作社, 上海 201611  
王武 上海海洋大学 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 上海 201306
上海市水产养殖工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
水产动物遗传育种上海市协同创新中心, 上海 201306 
 
郎月林 上海鱼跃水产专业合作社, 上海 201611  
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中文摘要:
      为了探究河蟹生态养殖池塘常见的3种水草腐解对水质的影响,进行了为期60 d的室内桶装模拟试验,监测水草质量损失率和桶内水体水质指标的变化。结果表明:3种水草的腐解速率有相同的特点,即前期较快,中、后期较慢,同时也存在差异性,轮叶黑藻和伊乐藻的腐解速率相近且较快,金鱼藻最慢;试验结束时,轮叶黑藻、伊乐藻和金鱼藻的质量损失率分别达到72.3%±2.1%、71.7%±1.5%和58.3%±0.6%。腐解前期水质因子的变化较大,水体由中性变为酸性;3种水草水体化学需氧量较试验初期升高约4.5倍,水体发黄、发臭;溶解氧被极大地消耗,水体处于缺氧或厌氧环境,促进了反硝化的进行,硝氮迅速降低,而亚硝氮和氨氮迅速升高,其中氨氮约是初始含量的6倍;总氮、总磷升高明显,其中总磷在所有水质因子中变化幅度最大,第3天,轮叶黑藻、伊乐藻和金鱼藻处理组水体总磷分别增加约123、124和66倍。随着腐解的进行,水体的部分氮、磷沉积进入底泥。总而言之,较多的水草残留在池塘中,会引起水体缺氧,加剧植物残体的腐解,导致水质恶化,因此需要适时地通过人工打捞来控制水草残体的生物量。
英文摘要:
      To study the influence of three common water plants decomposition on water quality in crab eco-culture pond, a 60-day interior simulation experiment was carried out in barrels. The results indicated that decomposition rates of three kinds of plants have the same characteristics, it was rapid in the early but slow in the middle and later periods. But they were different, the decomposition rate of Hydrilla verticillata and Elodea nuttallii were approximated and faster than Ceratophyllum demersum. At the end of experiment, the mass loss rate of Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea nuttalliiare and Ceratophyllum demersum were 72.3%±2.1%,71.7%±1.5% and 58.3%±0.6% . Water quality factors changed obviously in the early of decomposition and water was from neutral to acid. COD increased by about 4.5 times than start in the water of three kinds of water plants and the water was yellow and smelly. DO was greatly consumed, the water was in a hypoxic or anaerobic environment. Denitrification was promoted, so NO3--N decreased rapidly but NO2--N and NH4+-N increased rapidly, which NH4+-N was six times than initial concentration. TN and TP increased significantly and TP was the biggest change in all the water factors. The TP increased about 123,124 and 66 times in the water of Hydrilla verticillata、Elodea nuttallii and Ceratophyllum demersum on the third day. Along with the experiment, part of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water deposited into the sediment. So, the large biomass residues of submerged plants should be controlled avoid secondary pollution caused by excessive decomposition of submerged plants.
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