文章摘要
陈新军.世界头足类资源开发现状及我国远洋鱿钓渔业发展对策[J].上海海洋大学学报,2019,28(3):321-330
世界头足类资源开发现状及我国远洋鱿钓渔业发展对策
Development status of world cephalopod fisheries and suggestions for squid jigging fishery in China
投稿时间:2018-11-22  修订日期:2019-01-10
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20181102445
中文关键词: 头足类  远洋鱿钓  可持续发展
英文关键词: cephalopods  oceanic squid fishing  sustainable development
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41876141)
作者单位
陈新军 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院, 上海 201306
大洋渔业资源可持续开发教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306
国家远洋渔业工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306
农业农村部大洋渔业开发重点实验室, 上海 201306 
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中文摘要:
      头足类是世界上最具开发潜力的渔业种类之一,已成为世界海洋捕捞业的重要组成。根据1970—2016年世界各国头足类生产统计数据,利用灰色关联方法,对世界头足类渔业及其组成进行了分析;结合我国远洋鱿钓渔业的发展状况,指出存在的问题并提出发展对策。分析认为:1970—2016年世界头足类捕捞产量总体上呈现出较为稳定的增长趋势,年增长率达到3.68%,远高于同期世界海洋捕捞产量的增长率,2014年达到历史最高产量。2010—2016年,头足类捕捞产量占世界捕捞产量的比重稳定在4.5%~6.0%。不同年代柔鱼科、枪乌贼科、乌贼科和章鱼科的产量组成及其比重有所差异,主要生产国家和地区的产量排序发生了很大的变化,2010年代各科所占比重依次为柔鱼类(58.41%)、枪乌贼类(11.98%)、章鱼类(8.92%)、乌贼类(8.40%)。亚洲在40多年的世界头足类渔业组成中地位极为重要,日本头足类产量从1970年代到1990年代的第1位下降到2010年代的第5位,我国从1970年代的第5位上升到2000年代和2010年代的第1位。对大洋性鱿鱼资源的认知能力、开发能力和掌控能力不足是制约我国远洋鱿钓渔业可持续发展的主要问题,为此提出建立与国际接轨的全球远洋渔业资源调查与生产性探捕的监测体系,研制全球远洋鱿钓渔业渔海况信息服务系统,建立自主产权的渔具及标准化装备体系,研发渔获品质控制技术与溯源体系,开展基于物联网工程的远洋渔业信息化建设,建立起我国主导研究的头足类渔业资源评估体系等建议与对策。
英文摘要:
      The cephalopods are one of the most potential fishing species in the world and have become an important component of the world's marine fishing industry. The world cephalopod fisheries and their composition were analysed using the grey association method based on the world cephalopod production statistics from 1970 to 2016. According to the development status of China's pelagic squid fishery, the problems are pointed out and the development countermeasures are put forward. The analysis found that the world's cephalopod fishing production in the period from 1970 to 2016 generally showed a relatively stable growth trend, with an annual growth rate of 3.68%, which is much higher than the growth rate of world marine fishing production in the same period, and reached its highest level ever in 2014. Between 2010 and 2016, the proportion of cephalopods in world fishing production stabilized between 4.5% and 6.0%. The composition and proportion of the production for different families have varied from one generation to another, and the production of main countries and areas has changed greatly. In the 2010s, the proportion of each family was Ommastrephidae (58.41%), Loliginidae (11.98%), Octopodidae (8.92%), and Sepiidae (8.40%). Asia has played the important role in the cephalopod fishery in the world for more than 40 years. Japanese cephalopod production fell from 1st in the 1970s to 5th in the 1990s and 2010s, and China rose from 5th in the 1970s to 1st in the 2000s and 2010s. The lack of knowing, developing and controlling abilities over pelagic squid resources is a major constraint on the sustainable development of pelagic squid fisheries in China. Therefore, a global information service system should be developed on the fishing conditions of pelagic squid fisheries, a system for the standardization of fishing gear and equipment with independent property rights, the catch quality control technologies and traceability systems should be developed, information-based construction of ocean-going fisheries should be carried out based on Internet of Things projects, and the cephalopod fishery resources assessment system should be established.
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