文章摘要
周应祺,王 军,钱卫国,曹道梅,张仲秋,柳玲飞.鱼类集群行为的研究进展[J].上海海洋大学学报,2013,22(5):734-743
鱼类集群行为的研究进展
Review of fish schooling behavior study
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 鱼群  集群行为  群体结构  模拟仿真
英文关键词: fish school  schooling behavior  group structure  simulation
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201003024);上海海洋大学骆肇荛大学生科技创新基金(A-2900-12-0011-033);校青年基金(A-2500-12-0000321)
作者单位
周应祺 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
王 军 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
钱卫国 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
曹道梅 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
张仲秋 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
柳玲飞 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
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中文摘要:
      大多数鱼类具有集群性,由于集群的原因和机制不同,对“鱼群”的定义或文字表达也各不相同。建议对运动方向较一致或具有洄游特性的鱼群采用“Schooling”一词表达。还介绍了探索研究鱼类集群的机制和鱼群群体功能的方法和发展沿革,鱼群结构、次群体和自组织群体的特征。提出采用数学模型的模拟仿真技术探索鱼群产生自组织结构现象的机制是一种有效方法,这属于“唯像学”的方法,在大量观察数据和现象、经验的基础上,构建数学模型,对鱼群集群现象进行模拟和预测,再将模拟预测的结果与实际观察记录进行对比分析,由此推测或确定影响集群现象的主要因子或机制。计算机技术为建立复杂的模型提供了支持,采用模型仿真技术为研究鱼类群体行为学提供了有效的工具。
英文摘要:
      The most of fish species have the schooling behavior, due to the different causes and mechanism of schooling, which are presented by varied definitions of different words, such as shoal, cluster or aggregation, even swam or flock, etc. This article describes and analyses the definitions and classification based on their characteristics, and recommends the word “schooling” is mostly reflecting the phenomenon of fish migration in group. The way to explore the mechanism of schooling, the factors having impact on their behavior, and the methods used in the varied studies are reviewed. And the characteristics of the structure of fish school, sub groups, the phenomena of self organization, etc. are summarized. It is recommended that the mathematics model and simulation technique are effective methods to explore the mechanism of fish self organization phenomenon. This is a way to understand nature by “linkage by phenomena only”, based on observation data, experience and phenomena observed, building mathematics model for predicating and forecasting the fish behavior and schooling structure, and the results of simulation will again be compared with the actual observation records. It might speculate or determine the dominant factors affecting the schooling phenomenon or mechanism. Meanwhile, computer technology provides support for the creation of complex models using simulation technology as an effective tool to study fish schooling behavior in recent years.
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