文章摘要
高春霞,田思泉,戴小杰,吴 峰,许友伟.热带中东大西洋拟锥齿鲨生物学的初步研究[J].上海海洋大学学报,2013,22(2):289-294
热带中东大西洋拟锥齿鲨生物学的初步研究
Preliminary analysis of the biology of the crocodile shark, 〖WTHX〗Pseudocarcharias kamoharai〖WTHZ〗 in the tropical Eastern central Atlantic Ocean
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 拟锥齿鲨  金枪鱼延绳钓  生物学特征  热带大西洋
英文关键词: Pseudocarcharias kamoharai   tuna longline fishery  biological characteristics  tropical Eastern central Atlantic Ocean
基金项目:农业部三大洋金枪鱼观察员项目(08-54)
作者单位
高春霞 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
田思泉 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
戴小杰 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
吴 峰 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
许友伟 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院 
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中文摘要:
      拟锥齿鲨是金枪鱼延绳钓渔业中常见的兼捕鱼种,处于海洋食物链的顶端,对海洋生态系统的稳定和多样性起着极其重要的作用。根据我国金枪鱼渔业国家观察员在热带大西洋海域(4.24°~14.03°N,38.28°~27.13°W)调查时采集的383尾拟锥齿鲨样本,按不同性别对其生物学特征进行初步研究。结果表明:拟锥齿鲨雌雄性比约为1∶〖KG-*2〗0.36,且存在显著性差异;雌、雄性拟锥齿鲨的优势叉长范围分别为75~95 cm、65~90 cm;雄性肝重指数与性腺的发育程度关系不明显,雌性性成熟个体的肝重指数小于未成熟个体;雄性成熟个体占雄性总数的96.8%,雌性性成熟度以Ⅱ期和Ⅳ期为主,性成熟个体占雌性总数的56.12%,雌性拟锥齿鲨50%性成熟叉长为84.6 cm;摄食等级以0级为主,其次为1级,分别占52.38%和〖KG*9〗33.86%;胃含物中以沙丁鱼出现频率最高,其次为鱿鱼,分别占72.56%和27.44%;雌、雄的叉长和重量关系式分别为:WR=2×10-5LF2.7614,WR=2×10-6LF3.3287。
英文摘要:
      Crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, is a common by catch species of tuna longliner. As an important part of the oceanic food chain, it plays a vital role in the marine ecosystem. According to the total of 383 crocodile shark samples collected by China’s national tuna fisheries observers in the tropical Eastern central Atlantic Ocean (4.24°-14.03°N,27.13°-38.28°W), the biological characteristics of both females and males of crocodile sharks were analyzed and described, respectively. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The female male ratio was 1:0.36, and with significant difference; (2) The dominant fork length of males and females was 75-95 cm,65-90 cm, respectively; (3) There was no significant difference between Hepatosomatic indices (HSI ) and gonad development for male of P. kamohara, however, HSI of mature individuals was greater than that of immature individuals of female; (4)96.8% of males and 56.12% of females were mature. Maturity stages at Ⅱand Ⅳof females’ gonads were dominant and the size at 50% maturity (L50) of female was 84.6 cm in fork length; (4) Feeding stage 0 was dominant with the percentage of 52.38%, and feeding stage 1 accounted for the percentage of 33.86%; (5) The prey composition in the stomachs of these shark samples was mainly sardine (72.56%) and squid (27.44%); (6) The relationships between fork length and round weight for females and males was described by WR=2×10-5LF2.7614, WR=2×10-6LF3.3287 respectively. Due to the difficulty for collecting the oceanic species samples, this study contributed to a better understanding of crocodile shark in biological characteristics, and the information from this study would be helpful for some regional fisheries management organizations to conduct stock assessment and decision making.
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