文章摘要
刘新山,周洁.金枪鱼渔业国际组织的公正性评述[J].上海海洋大学学报,2016,25(2):291-297.
LIU Xinshan,ZHOU Jie.On fairness of international organizations of tuna fisheries[J].Journal of Shanghai Ocean University,2016,25(2):291-297.
金枪鱼渔业国际组织的公正性评述
On fairness of international organizations of tuna fisheries
投稿时间:2014-04-29  修订日期:2014-06-27
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20140401097
中文关键词: 金枪鱼  国际渔业组织  渔业法  海洋法  国际环境法
英文关键词: tuna  international organization of fisheries  law of fisheries  sea law  environmental law
基金项目:农业部项目 (2130135—01006);中国水产科学研究院项目(2060302-05015)
作者单位
刘新山 大连海洋大学 海洋科技与环境学院, 辽宁 大连 116023 
周洁 大连海洋大学 海洋科技与环境学院, 辽宁 大连 116023 
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中文摘要:
      为养护高度洄游、跨界的金枪鱼资源,建立了五个金枪鱼国际组织,使公海金枪鱼渔业从自由竞争走向了以国际渔业组织为平台的合作、竞争时代。但是,由渔业发达国家主导建立的资源利用和养护规则与习惯国际法、1982年联合国海洋法公约、国际环境法确立的国际法基本原则并不完全一致。相对比例过高的金枪鱼组织成员资格费,配额分配或捕捞能力限制过分地与历史渔获量和所谓的科学贡献关联,只和短期内的年均渔获量低程度关联的财政分摊方案等都有损于新兴远洋渔业国、沿海国、群岛国享有的渔业权益。建议重视国际渔业法和环境法理论研究,积极参加金枪鱼组织基本文件修订工作,和有关国家一起建立更加公正的国际渔业秩序,并应努力提高企业的国际竞争力,增强国际谈判的博弈实力。
英文摘要:
      Five international organizations of tuna fisheries are established to conserve highly migratory, straddling tuna stocks. Tuna fisheries in high seas are consequentially transformed from a time of free competition to a time of cooperative competition on the platform of international organizations of tuna fisheries. However the rules concerning utilization and conversation of tuna stocks elaborated fundamentally by the developed fishing states are not entirely consistent with the principles of international customary law, of 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,and of international environmental law. Relatively and proportionally high contributions for organizational membership, quota allocation or fishing capacity limitation correlated unduely to historical catch and so-called contributions to scientific research, and financial contribution schemes correlated low proportionally to annual average catch in a short-term, etc are prejudices to the fishing interests enjoyed by developing distant fishing nations, coastal states and archipelagic states. Some recommendations are put forward: emphasize study on international fisheries law and environmental law, participate actively in amending the basic texts of tuna fisheries organizations to establish much fairer international fishery order with other states together,and enhance international competiveness of fisheries enterprises to increase game strength during international negotiation.
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